Lyabi Hauz is the name of the area that surrounds one of the few ponds (hauzes) in Bukhara remained at present time. In translation from Farsi Lyabi Hauz means "coast pond" or "lip pond." In ancient times in Bukhara there was a lot of Hauzes, they supplied residents of the city with water and gave coolness. But because of the high risk of occurrence of various diseases Hauzes were gradually drained during the period of 1920 -1930. Lyabi Hauz does not suffer a similar fate because it is the center of a unique architectural ensemble, which was created over the centuries and remained almost unchanged until today. The ensemble consists of three mighty and majestic buildings.
Sheikh Miri Arab
Sheikh Miri Arab was the spiritual mentor, had a major influence on the state affairs and had a great influence on the ruler Ubaydullakhan. Khan handed Miri Arab money that was rescued from the sale of the captives into slavery. That money was used to build madrasah. Construction of madrassa belongs to the XVI century. For a long period of its existence the building has been almost destroyed. Later the building was restored with efforts of the best masters of the city.
Modern Ark - Citadel - a fortress is the oldest architectural monument. Looking at this monumental construction, it is hard to believe how many damages it suffered in its history.
The history of Bukhara says: "The ruler of Bukhara Bidun Hudot built this fortress, but it soon has been collapsed. He rebuilt the fortress several times and every time it collapsed". The cause of such many destructions was unknown. However, after several unsuccessful attempts to construct the fortress the governor referred to sages for help. The fortress, built as per their advice, did not collapse. But it was again destroyed during the conquests of Chingiz Khan. The fortress used to be the residence of the Emir of Bukhara for a long time and symbolized the power and authority of the ruler. The last destruction of Ark was in 1920 when it was bombed by bolsheviks. Part of the building has been permanently destroyed and can not be restored.
Palace Sitorai Mohi Khosa
Palace Sitorai Mohi Khosa is a unique architectural monument, dating end of the XIX century. It is one of the few palaces that survived to the present day in its original form.
Construction was begun by Abdullahadhan, when at the end of the XIX century he decided to build his own residence in 4 km from Bukhara.
Palace Sitorai Mohi Khosa, which is translated as "The palace like stars and moon", is a unique and outstanding construction, even by today's standards. The best Central Asian artists of that time were involved in its contruction. In 1920 the Bukhara Emirate ceased to exist, after which the palace was mercilessly plundered by Red Army looters, arrived here from Moscow.
Bahauddin Naqshbandi Mausoleum
Once near Bukhara there was a pagan temple of the Zoroastrians, which the Arabs destroyed after their conquest of Central Asia, leaving only ruins. In the XVI century mausoleum was built there, where the relics of Bahauddin Naqshbandi are stored at the present time.
It is not surprising that soon the Mausoleum of Naqshbandi has become known as "Central Asian Mekka." Today, as many centuries ago, hundreds of thousands of Muslims from around the world make the pilgrimage to the mausoleum, as they believe that prayers said on the holy place will reach Allah easier. It is considered that piligrimage on foot from Bukhara to the mausoleum performed three times is equivalent to one Hajj to Mekka.
For centuries, almost every ruler saw fit to additionaly build his own construction close to the mausoleum in order to leave his mark in history. Presently the complex of Bahauddin Naqshbandi includes a mausoleum, small minaret, two mosques, two sacred wells, an inn and a bath.
In one of the most picturesque corners of Bukhara - Samanid park, there is the oldest monument of Islamic architecture - the Samanids Mausoleum. It is considered to be an architectural masterpiece of Bukhara and the only surviving architectural monument of the Samani dynasty.
According to the legend, this mausoleum was built by the founder of the Samanid state - Ismail Samani, for his father - Ahmad Ibn Saad. Later Ismail and his grandson were also buried in the mausoleum. Historically the place became a burial-vault of the Samanids dynasty.
Chashma Ayub Mausoleum
A legend goes that the holy prophet Iov visited Bukhara land. He saw that people suffered water shortages and wanted to help them. He banged his stick on the ground and a source of clean water appeared in that place. People believed that water had healing power. They built a mausoleum and placed the dome above the source.
Currently, the mausoleum is a museum of water. The exhibits of the museum tell visitors how it is not easy to find and draw water in a desert and how people have managed to do it in the territory of Bukhara starting from the X century till the XX century.
Chor -Bakr necropolis
Chor-Bakr is the cemetry of the old family of Djuybar Seyyids. The memebers of the family were considered to be Prophet Muhammad's descendants and many centuries the family held important political positions. But four representatives of the dynasty have been famous most of all. They had lived in different times but were buried in the same place, hence the name of the mazar (cemetery) "Chor Bakr" is translated as "Four brothers". They were extraordinarily wise, had a bearing upon political and public life of Bukhara, prevented political conflicts by themselves, engaged in charity, provided material support for poor people and education for their children.
By their long fruitfull work, wisdom and loyalty they have earned appreciation, love and reverence of local people. Chor-Bakr historically has been a sacred place and a distination for pilgrimages. Even today people from around the world come here to worship.
Presently Mazar Chor Bakr is a quiet place with courtyards, small streets, passages, tombstones. In the XX century, around the cemetery there was built a minaret.
Abdulaziz Khan Madrassah
The madrassah was built in front of Ulugbek madrassah by the order of Emir Abdulaziz Khan in the XVII century. For the decoration of the madrassa the ancient masters used yellow paint and yellow color prevails. That was an innovation for that time as blue, green and white colors were commonly used for decoration of buildings of Bukhara. Another distinctive feature of the madrassah is that its facade is decorated by mythical images of dragon and Semurg bird of happiness instead of geometrical ornaments. The historical events of that time are reflected in the design of the madrassah. It is the fact that while madrassah was being constructed, the coup took place and Abdulaziz Khan was overthrown. Abdulaziz Khan madrassah and Ulugbek madrassah together form an architectural ensemble. In XX century, it was held a major restoration of the building.
Abdulla Khan Madrassah
This madrasa is notable for huge size and complex planning. It was built in the XVI century and is the third largest madrassah in Bukhara. It was built by Abdullah Khan in honor of his son, who was killed being very young in a battle.
Madrassah was built around a small yard. This layout was traditional for such facilities. However, within the planning of buildings and sophisticated transitions between them than usual. An unconventional approach to the construction of madrassah allows to view this unique creation of ancient architectors in the dynamics. The large size of the building and the colorful design make it very festive and solemn.
Hoja Zainuddin Hanaka
The Hoja Zainuddin ensemble includes a hanaka and a hauz. The building of Hoja Zainuddin Hanaka is referred to the XVI century. It was used as a quarter mosque. The mosque-hanaka has a central hall with dome and several small rooms. The hall was intended for ritual religious ceremonies and small rooms, adjacent to it, were used to settle in for overnight dervishes and sometimes traders passing through Bukhara. The hanaka is known as the revered place where Sheikh Zainuddin was buried. His name was given to the whole complex including hanaka and hauz - the small pond nearby. The hauz is the oldest artificial reservoir in Bukhara.
Since ancient times Bukhara was an important commercial center. It attracted many merchants and traders from Russia, India, China, Iran and Central Asia. The number of traders has been so great that almost every major street was transformed into a number of shopping for a specific product type. Under the dome is a large marketplace, where vendors were placed with their goods. Currently, there are 3 trade domes: Toki Zargaron, Sarrafon Toki, Toki Tilpak Furushon. All of them are currently stored in the information about the ancient Bukhara, which was once an important trading center.
Walking through the streets of Bukhara, you can see the high tower of burned brick - Kalyan Minaret. Design of the minaret is various kinds of patterned belts. All different patterns, none of them is repeated.
This structure was built in order to urge local people to prayer. But then the building was used for other purposes: for example, it relied errant traders, hence people watched a beautiful view from a great height, and found approaching enemies long before their attack.
At the foot of the minaret is situated mosque Kalyan. The mosque and minaret are connected with the bridge, you can go to the minaret, climb the many steps to the top and admire the view of Bukhara from the highest point.
Namaz – it is daily prayer time, which according to the canons of Islam need to do 5 times a day. On the basis of this name, namazgoh - a place to read a prayer.
Namazgokh Mosque - one of the oldest in Bukhara, it was built in the XII century and refers to the beginning of the spread of Islam in Bukhara.
The building of the mosque Namazgokh was very valuable to the city, so it was constantly reconstructed and improved. Currently, this is a great old building artfully decorated. The most severely it’s appearance changed at two reconstructions - in the XIII and XV centuries.
Now it is a tourist monument and namaz is not read here now.
Prior to the beginning of the XX century it was the main mosque, where Friday prayers were made, here prayed Emir of Bukhara. Bolo - Hauz means "children's pond."
The mosque was built in the XVIII century and in relation to other mosques in Bukhara - one of the youngest.
Chor Minor Madrassah
Chor Minor - in translation, four minarets - madrasas, built in the XIX century. Madrasah is a rectangular building, which is located at the corners of the minarets. Minarets are much higher than the frame of the building and it is strongly highlighted.
Minarets are the same height, but different in form and decoration, each with its own pattern of towers. Perhaps each of these minarets represents one of the four world religions. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the towers are decorated with drawings that have symbolic value in the religions.
Nadir Divan-Begi Madrassah
This madrassa - one of the buildings of architectural ensemble Labi House, located in the eastern part.
There is a legend that initially, when the building was constructed, it was not madrasah. It was caravanserai - a place designed for relaxation and overnight travelers and traders.
The fact that the building was transformed into a madrasa, not originally conceived as such, shows an unusual layout of the building. The madrasah is decorated with colorful mosaics, the remains of this design have survived to the present day.
Modari Khan Madrassah
Modari Khan means "mother of the Khan" and symbolizes that the madrassah was built in honor of the mother of Abdullah Khan. The building is designed to teach people and was built in the XVI century.
Varahshan Palace is located a few kilometers far from the modern Bukhara and comes to desolation, as it is not attended by either locals or tourists.
The building belongs to the V century, and survived almost till the IX century, the palace is one of the most ancient. The palace has three large rooms, the walls are painted with paintings and elaborately decorated with different materials. The paintings depict various scenes from the life of people from ancient times: the royal receptions, hunting scenes, everyday life and so on.